“The story of the annual smuggling of an estimated 1.5 million cattle says much about modern India – about the sometimes hypocritical treatment of supposedly sacred cows, the political power of right-wing Hinduism and the corruption that allows the £320m illegal trade to flourish. But ultimately this story is about supply and demand. Hindu-majority India has an estimated 280 million cows but killing and eating them is legal in only a handful of states. Meanwhile, Muslim-majority Bangladesh, where beef is eaten with relish, suffers from a shortage of cattle. Half of the beef consumed in Bangladesh comes from its large, western neighbour. — Andrew Buncombe
Even in the dog days of summer, the quiet paddy fields that mark the border between India and Bangladesh look as supple and green as the soft stems of herbs grown in a window box. But the daytime tranquillity belies a stark reality. This delta region of the Ganges river is a place of often deadly conflict that underpins an activity many in India would rather not discuss. Every year, hundreds of thousands of cows – considered sacred in India, with export of the beasts banned – are illegally smuggled into Bangladesh where they are turned into shoes, belts, bone china crockery and, of course, meat.
“There is smuggling here every day,” said Umesh, a member of a three-man Indian Border Security Force (BSF) team on duty at a watchtower near the village of Kaharpara, just a few hundred yards from the Bangladesh border. “The smugglers will take 50, 100 or 200 cattle at a time. We try to create an ambush and surround the smugglers.”
The story of the annual smuggling of an estimated 1.5 million cattle says much about modern India – about the sometimes hypocritical treatment of supposedly sacred cows, the political power of right-wing Hinduism and the corruption that allows the £320m illegal trade to flourish. But ultimately this story is about supply and demand. Hindu-majority India has an estimated 280 million cows but killing and eating them is legal in only a handful of states. Meanwhile, Muslim-majority Bangladesh, where beef is eaten with relish, suffers from a shortage of cattle. Half of the beef consumed in Bangladesh comes from its large, western neighbour.
The snaking border that divides the two countries runs for 1,300 miles. Here in the Murshidabad district of West Bengal, 150 miles north-east of the state capital Kolkata, large sections of it are unfenced. It is a lure both for human traffickers and gangs from both sides of the border smuggling cows.
Villagers, who claimed not to know any smugglers but appeared to know the intricacies of the operation, said cattle were brought by truck from states across eastern India such as Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand. Some may even be brought from further away. Despite the effort involved, the mathematics is persuasive. An animal that might sell for £60-£80 in the country’s cow-belt hinterland will here fetch £130. Once inside Bangladesh, they could change hands for £225 or more.
“Those buying the cows always look to see how fat it is. They feed them husks from the paddy,” said Mohammed Ashraf, a blacksmith who was hammering into shape a glowing curved sickle that locals use to cut the rice crop that is harvested three times a year.
Yet the trade comes with a deadly price. The BSF has been accused of killing hundreds of cattle smugglers, as well as civilians not involved in the trade. A 2010 report published by Human Rights Watch (HRW) suggested that more than 900 people had been killed with impunity by the BSF over the past 10 years. It also said locals claimed some BSF members were complicit with the smuggling and took bribes. This year, an incident in which an alleged smuggler was badly beaten by the security force personnel was captured on video.
“Over the last decade, they used excessive and indiscriminate force, shooting at villagers on suspicion that they were smugglers,” said Meenakshi Ganguly, HRW’s south Asia director. “While many may have been engaged in cattle rustling, the BSF ignored the most basic principles of protecting the right to life. Instead of arresting suspects, they shot and killed them. The BSF claimed they had to use lethal force as self-defence, an argument hard to believe since the police reports on the weapons recovered usually [refer to] sickles and sticks.”
Asked about the allegations, a BSF spokesman said: “The BSF is a disciplined and professional force [and] exercises utmost restraint in the use of any force. The BSF has also an impeccable record of upholding human rights.”
Ms Ganguly said that since issuing its report, the BSF had started using rubber bullets which led to a drop in fatalities. But, villagers said their evenings were still sometimes disrupted. “We hear the gunshots at night-time. Sometimes the smugglers get shot. It’s mainly people from the other side of the border,” said Mr Ashraf. Locals said the smugglers often used teenagers to transport the cattle across the border in the belief the security forces were less likely to shoot a youngster.
There is a clear antagonism between the guards and the villagers. Some locals said the BSF troops retaliated against anyone they could find. Matir Rahaman, a rice farmer who was cycling back from the fields, said he had been badly beaten by BSF personnel. “One night the cows came over the border and the paddy got smashed. I went to the BSF and said, ‘Why is this happening’. They said, ‘You are smugglers’ and they attacked us with [metal-tipped bamboo sticks],” he alleged.
Ashfaqur Rahman, a retired Bangladesh diplomat who now chairs the Dhaka-based Centre for Foreign Affairs Studies, said the matter was sensitive but that legalising the export of cows or beef would put an end to corruption and violence. “There needs to be wise counsel on both sides,” he said.
An irony is that India is expected to become the world’s largest exporter of beef – from non-sacred buffaloes, rather than cows – by next year. According to an estimate recently published by the US Department of Agriculture, India is likely to export 1.5 million tons of beef in 2012, a 25 per cent increase from last year. Its biggest markets are south-east Asia, the Gulf and Africa.
Cows have been considered sacred in India for centuries, and in only a few states is killing and eating them legal. More recently, a movement by Dalits, or so-called untouchables, demanding the right to eat cows has gathered pace. In 2004, Indian historian D.N. Jha published the controversial The Myth of the Holy Cow, which argued that during the period when a number of the most important Hindu religious texts were produced, people in India ate cows. [Sic: Jha was an unethical Marxist historian who spent his life trying to undermine the Hindu culture and identity of India. He cherry-picked the data for his book on the holy cow, and gives a very distorted and untrue picture of ancient India. -- IS]
Kancha Ilaiah, a Dalit activist and a professor at Maulana Azad National Urdu University in Hyderabad, believes Aryan invaders of Hindustan promoted the (white) cow over the (black) buffalo. “The buffalo predates the Aryans,” he said. [Sic: Of course the buffalo predates the Aryans---because there were no Aryans, stupid! Kancha Ilaiah---who is not a dalit but some sort of shudra---like Justice Katju, are clowns who pose as learned public intellectuals with official titles. They are tolerated because their lies and distortions are entertaining. Nobody takes them seriously except, perhaps, the christianised newspaper editors who publish them. -- IS]
There have been attempts by the Indian authorities to review the ban on cow exports. Earlier this year, a report by the government’s central planning committee suggested changing the law to allow the export of beef. The plan was hastily dropped and explained away as a “clerical error” amid an angry backlash from right-wing Hindu organisations such as the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and so-called “cow protection” groups.
Among those who complained was the UN-affiliated International Organisation for Animal Protection. The group’s India director, Naresh Kadyan, said: “It is the fundamental duty of Indians that [everyone] should respect all animals. We strongly opposed the lifting of the ban and the government made a U-turn,” he said. “The cow is a very important animal for Hindus.” — The Independent, 1 June 2012
Article 48 of the Indian Constitution states:
“The state shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.”
- Peace on your plate – Bhuvaneshwari Gupta
- Towards banning of cow slaughter in India – Dharampal
- VIDEO: Inside a Kerala slaughter house – Jamsheed Jamshi
- The Desi Cow: Almost extinct - Jay Mazoomdaar
- India has become a large slaughter house for cows – Maneka Gandhi
- Cow Slaughter: Dravidian traffickers and beef’s own country – B.R. Haran
- VIDEO: Their Last Journey: Cattle trafficking to Kerala – Temple Worshippers Society
- Cow is a sacred asset of the nation – Subramanian Swamy
- The principle of vegetarianism in Sanatana Dharma – Sri Acharyaji
- Buddhism and its dubious ‘pure meat’ teaching – Sandhya Jain
- Osmania Beef Festival: A mouthful of controversies – Swapan Dasgupta
- JNU students plan pig-eating festival – Vijaya Rajiva
- Growing beef trade hits India’s sacred cow – Arezou Rezvani, Benjamin Gottlieb & Elise Hennigan
- McDonald’s in India – Heather Timmons
- Olympic Vegetarians: The elite athletes who shun meat – Adharanand Finn
- 34 Celebrity Vegetarians – HuffPost
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